The top section of this page contains links to useful documents and articles. Just click on the resource name for access.

The Education section has references for longer articles as well as courses and programs that you can access on line. To access academic journal articles, your institution may have library access, or you can try your state or territory library.



  • Benetas. “Frailty in Community Dwelling Older People— Using Frailty Screening as the Canary in the Coal Mine.” Melbourne, 2017.
  • Feng, Zeyun, Marjolein Lugtenberg, Carmen Franse, Xinye Fang, Shanlian Hu, Chunlin Jin, and Hein Raat. “Risk Factors and Protective Factors Associated with Incident or Increase of Frailty among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.” Edited by Stephen D. Ginsberg. PLOS ONE 12, no. 6 (June 15, 2017): e0178383.
  • Fried, L. P., L. Ferrucci, J. Darer, J. D. Williamson, and G. Anderson. 2004. “Untangling The Concepts Of Disability, Frailty, And Comorbidity: Implications For Improved Targeting And Care”. The Journals Of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences And Medical Sciences 59 (3): M255-M263. doi:10.1093/gerona/59.3.m255.
  • Fried, L. P., C. M. Tangen, J. Walston, A. B. Newman, C. Hirsch, J. Gottdiener, T. Seeman, et al. “Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype.” The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 56, no. 3 (March 1, 2001): M146–57.
  • Kirby, Sarah, Peter Coleman, and Dave Daley. “Spirituality and Well-Being in Frail and Nonfrail Older Adults.” Journal of Gerontology: Physchological Sciences 59B, no. 3 (2004): 123-29.
  • Lekan, Deborah A., Evelyn Hoover, and Sarah Abrams. “Perspectives of Frailty Among African American Men and Women.” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 56, no. 7 (July 1, 2018): 20–29.
  • MacKinlay, Elizabeth. “Ageing, Frailty and the Final Life Journey: A Brief Outline of the Report.” Centre for Public and Contextual Theology, Charles Sturt University, 2018.
  • Pardue, Lea. “Models for Ministry: The Spiritual Needs of the Frail Elderly Living in Long-Term Care Facilities.” Journal of Religious Gerontology 8, no. 1 (1991)